Frequently Asked Questions

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Acoustic Sound Enclosure

Sonifier® Accessories

B3800 Tabletop Ultrasonic Cleaner

Tank Size: 290 x 150 x 150mm
5.5 Litres

Branson IC1216

Tank Size: 450 x 300 x 300mm
36 Litres

Sonifier® 250CE (450) Analogue

B2800 Tabletop Ultrasonic Cleaner

Tank Size: 240 x 140 x 100mm 2.8 Litres

Sonifier® 450CE (250) Digital

B1800 Tabletop Ultrasonic Cleaner

Tank Size: 140 x 150 x 100mm 1.9 Litres

B8800 Tabletop Ultrasonic

Tank Size: 495 x 290 x 150mm 20 Litres

Sonifier® Model
SLPe 150 Digital

B200 Ultrasonic Cleaner
The perfect size for jewellery and optical devices
Tank Size: 170 x 90 x 50mm
0.5 litres

Cleaning Solutions


Ultrasonic cleaning Liquid Processing

Ultrasonic cleaning

Q. What is cavitation?

A. "Cavitation" is the rapid formation and collapse of millions of tiny bubbles (or cavities) in a liquid. Cavitation is produced by the alternating high and low pressure waves generated by high frequency (ultrasonic) sound. During the low pressure phase, these bubbles grow from microscopic size until, during the high pressure phase, they are compressed and implode.

Q. What is degassing, and why should it be done?

A. "Degassing" is the initial removal of gases present in the solution. Useful cavitation occurs after gasses have been removed from the cleaning solution, leaving a vacuum in the formed bubble. When the high pressure wave hits the bubble wall, the bubble collapses; it is the energy released by this collapse that will assist a detergent in breaking the bonds between parts and their soils.

Q. How do I get the best ultrasonic cleaning?

A. There are many considerations important to ultrasonic cleaning. Optimizing these variables will produce the best cleaning. The most important decisions to be made are choosing the proper cleaning solution, cleaning at the right temperature for the correct amount of time, and choosing the right size and type of ultrasonic cleaner.

Q. Can ultrasonic cleaning damage my parts?

A. With certain cautions, ultrasonic cleaning is considered safe for most parts. While the effects of thousands of implosions per second is very powerful, the cleaning process is safe since the energy is localized at the microscopic level. The most important cautionary consideration is the choice of cleaning solution. Potentially adverse effects of the detergent on the material being cleaned will be enhanced by the ultrasonics. Ultrasonic cleaning is not recommended for the following gemstones: opal, pearl, emerald, tanzanite, malachite, turquoise, lapis and coral.

Q. What is direct and indirect cleaning?

A. Direct cleaning occurs when the parts are cleaned in a cleaning solution which fills the cleaner, usually inside a perforated tray or mesh basket. The limitation of direct cleaning is that a solution must be chosen that will not damage the ultrasonic cleaner. Indirect cleaning involves placing the parts to be cleaned in an inner non-perforated tray or beaker that often contains a solution that the user may not want directly filling the ultrasonic tank. When choosing indirect cleaning, make sure that the water level inside the tank itself is maintained to the fill line (about 1" from the tank top) at all times.

Q. Why is a special solution required for cleaning?

A. Soils adhere to the parts... if they didn't, the soil would just fall off the parts! The purpose of the solution is to break the bonds between parts and their soils. Water alone has no cleaning properties. The primary purpose of the ultrasonic activity (cavitation) is to assist the solution in doing its job. An ultrasonic cleaning solution contains various ingredients designed to optimize the ultrasonic cleaning process. For example, increased cavitation levels result from reduced fluid surface tension. An ultrasonic solution will contain a good wetting agent or surfactant.

Q. What cleaning solution should I use?

A. Modern ultrasonic cleaning solutions are compounded from a variety of detergents, wetting agents and other reactive components. A large variety of excellent formulations are available, designed for specific applications. Proper selection is crucial for acceptable cleaning activity and to preclude undesirable reactivity with the part being cleaned. Your Bransonic® representative can help you to identify either the optimal 'stock' cleaning formula, or likely candidates to test and evaluate.

Q. What cleaning solution shouldn't I use?

A. Flammables or solutions with low flash points should never be used. The energy released by cavitation is converted to heat and kinetic energy, generating high temperature gradients in the solution, and can create hazardous conditions with flammable liquids. Acids, bleach and bleach by-products should generally be avoided, but may be used with indirect cleaning in a proper indirect cleaning container, such as a glass beaker, and appropriate care. Acid and bleach will damage stainless steel tanks, and/or create hazardous conditions.

Q. When should solutions be changed?

A. Cleaning solutions should be replenished when a noticeable decrease in cleaning action occurs, or when the solution is visibly dirty or spent. A fresh batch of solution at each cleaning session is usually not required.

Q. Why must I keep solution at the tank's level indicator?

A. The solution level should always be maintained at the level indicator in the tank, with trays or beakers installed. The ultrasonic cleaning system is a 'tuned' system. Improper solution levels will change the characteristics of the environment, can affect the system frequency, decrease effectiveness, and potentially damage the cleaner. Maintaining the proper solution level provides optimum circulation of solution around parts, and protects heaters and transducers from overheating or stress.

Q. What is the length of cleaning time?

A. Cleaning time will vary, depending on such things as soil, solution, temperature and the degree of cleanliness desired. Highly visible removal of soils should start almost immediately after the ultrasonic cleaning action begins. Cleaning time adjustment is the easiest (and most often misapplied) factor used to compensate for process variables. Although new application cycle duration can be approximated by an experienced operator, it usually must be validated by actual use with the chosen solution and the actual soiled parts.

Q. What is the purpose of the unit heater?

A. The primary purpose of the unit heater is to maintain a solution temperature between cleaning cycles. The tremendous energy released by cavitation will generate the heat for cleaning.

Q. How do I know if the unit is cavitating properly?

A. Most poor cleaning usually results from improper control of one or more process variable(s); such as choosing the wrong detergent solution, insufficient heat, or not allowing enough time for the particular soil to be removed. If you suspect that your ultrasonic cleaner is not cavitating properly, there are two simple tests you can perform: the "glass slide" test and the "foil" test.

Q. How do I perform the glass slide test?

A. Wet the frosted portion of a glass slide with tap water and draw an "X" with a No. 2 pencil from corner to corner of the frosted area. Making sure that the tank is filled to the fill line, immerse the frosted end of the slide into fresh cleaning solution. Turn on the ultrasonics. The lead "X" will begin to be removed almost immediately, and all lead should be removed within ten seconds.

Q. How do I perform the foil test?

A. Cut three small pieces of aluminum foil about 4" x 8" each. Fold each piece over a rod that you will use to suspend the foil in the tank. A clothes hanger works well. Your cleaner should be filled with an ultrasonic cleaning solution, degassed, and brought up to normal operating temperature. Suspend the first "square" in the center of the tank and the other two a couple of inches from each end of the tank. Make sure that the tank is filled to the fill line, and turn on the ultrasonics for about ten minutes. Remove the foil and inspect: All three pieces of aluminum foil should be perforated and wrinkled to about the same degree.

Q. Why must trays or beakers be used?

A. Items being cleaned should never be placed directly on the tank bottom. Transducers (which produce the ultrasound) are bonded to the bottom of the tank. Items resting directly on the tank bottom can damage the transducers and/or reduce cavitation. Additionally, a tray or beaker will position the item within the optimal cleaning zone of the tank. The tray or beaker will also hold the load together and allow for easy, no-touch removal, draining and transport of the items to the next step in the cleaning process.

Q. What is the optimum cleaning temperature?

A. Heat usually enhances and speeds up the cleaning process, and most detergent solutions are designed to work best at an elevated temperature. The best way to find the optimum temperature, which will give you the fastest, cleanest and safest results, is to run tests. Usually, the best results are within the 50°C to 65°C range.

Q. Is rinsing required after cleaning cycles?

A. Rinsing is recommended to remove any chemical residue, which could be harmful to the part. Parts can be rinsed right in your ultrasonic cleaner, using a clean water bath, or in a separate tub containing tap, distilled or deionized water.

Q. Why shouldn't I leave my cleaner on constantly?

A. Low solution levels can seriously damage your cleaner. Running your unit continuously runs the strong risk of lowered levels as the solution evaporates, especially when heated. Getting into the habit of shutting off the ultrasonics when not in use, and monitoring the solution level when in use, will yield many years of trouble free service from your ultrasonic cleaner.

Liquid Processing

Q. At what frequency does a Sonfier operate?
A. Standard Sonifier® products operate at a nominal frequency of 20 kHz or 20,000 cycles per second. The auto-tuning feature actually moves the frequency within a small range during operation to optimize performance.

Q. When should I change the replaceable tip on my horn?
A. Replaceable tips are generally used in high-energy applications where tip wear is expected. As energy is transmitted from the horn tip, traces of metal are eroded. Over time, this results in light pitting. Tips can be polished with crocus paper or emery cloth until they are out of dimensional tolerance. When this happens, the horn will be difficult to tune, may squeal, and eventually crack. As tips are relatively inexpensive, it is recomended that they be changed after the second polishing.

Q. Why must the amplitude (power) be set below 7 when I use a microtip?
A. Microtips are designed to be used in small containers and are therefore quite thin. This smaller dimensional cross-section makes them more susceptable to stress cracking at higher amplitudes.

Q. What factors must I consider to effectively process my sample size?
A. The two primary factors for effective processing of a given sample size are horn diameter and delivered power. The two must work together for optimal performace. Too little power and a large horn will stall. Too much power and horn damage may result. Branson offers a range of horns with each of their Sonifiers® that have been proven effective with that particular unit.

Q. What is a booster and when is it used?
A. "booster" is a device which is inserted between the converter and the horn. It mechanically increases the horn amplitude by some factor. They are typically used in difficult applications or flow-through applications where exposure time is very limited.

Q. Can I process toxins or bio-hazardous materials safely?
A. Hazardous materials may be safely processed with a sealed atmosphere horn. This device isolates the process sample in a sealed chamber during the entire cycle. It is available with external cooling and is also used in cases where there is need for metric evaluation of reaction components.

Q. How can I process more than 4-500ml of material?
A. For processing larger volumes or a continuous flow of material, Branson offers flow-through processing cells. These specialized chambers permit the continuous flow of material through a high-density ultrasonic field. Volumes as high as 40 liters per hour can be reached with a single unit.

Q. How do I process very small samples?
A. The greatest difficulty with processing small samples is providing good horn/sample contact. This can be improved by using a process container with a conical bottom. This increases liquid depth for easier horn tip immersion without increasing liquid volume. The bottom of an Eppendorf cell is often used for this purpose. A 3/32" or 1/8" microtip should be used and care should be exercised to not touch the side of the container with the horn.